Unpaving Paradise: Digging Up Taiwan's Ancient Heritage

By Trista di Genova, MSt, Oxford University
Originally published in abridged form in Taiwan News

Cited on megalithic.co.uk

Most of us inhabit this earth as far removed in our daily lives as possible from the roots of our civilization, and Taiwan is no different. Like most modernized countries, it has industrialized its terrain from forest into farmland, then from farmland into cities teeming with concrete structures.

Over a thousand ancient sites have been discovered in Taiwan over the past century, with many constantly being unearthed and excavated to this day — by only a handful of archaeologists. Yet few are aware that Taiwan’s history may hold the key to understanding human development and migration in the Asia-Pacific region.

Evidence of human settlement in Taiwan — so far — dates back at least 30,000 years. Where these people originated from is unclear and something for which linguists, geneticists and archaeologists are trying to build a model. There was a “transmission of people” as well as the Austronesian language and culture, into Oceania from Southeast Asia, coming “from Taiwan or nearby areas” according to the author of “The First Human,” Ann Gibbons; and Southeast China.

During the last Ice Age (Plato cited 9,600 years ago), the sea level fell as much as 150 meters and a land bridge existed between what is now China and Taiwan. Migration occurred, based on archaeological evidence such as similar types of pottery and animals that existed in both places, such as mammoths, stegodons, rhinos and Przwalski’s horse.

Besides the glaciers of Hsueshan Mountain and fog forests and “God Trees” that existed in Alishan until the early 1900s, Taiwan was no deserted island. Peoples migrated there from other places, some staying, some moving on to other regions such as the Batanes in the Philippines, where linguistic similarities to this day make the local language easily intelligible to members of Taiwan’s Bunun, or Yami tribe of Orchid island – known for their boat-making skills.

Yet DNA evidence shows Taiwanese aboriginals are related to Malaysians and Polynesians — not Southeast China. How could this be?

Archaeology professor Peter Bellwood of Australian National
University chronicled how Austronesian-speaking populations began colonizing Oceania (Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia) circa 1500 BC. Bellwood concluded the lineage of mitochondrial DNA spread with Austronesian ancestors from China through Taiwan into Southeast Asia.

“Obviously, all these early peoples intermarried with each other, including with much more ancient native peoples in Taiwan and Southeast Asia, so the genetic traces of ancestry are not always very clear. There were never pure populations who never mixed,” Bellwood wrote by email.

“The land connection between Taiwan and Fujian would have existed until early in the Holocene period, perhaps 8000 years ago,” he continued. “This is long before the Austronesians, who migrated to Taiwan about 6,000 years ago, using boats. Earlier people were hunters and gatherers — they left stone tools in the Changbin caves on the east coast, for example.”

“Austronesians in Taiwan were related to people in southern China 5,000 years ago,” Bellwood wrote. “But they are not now because all of the people in Fujian and Guangdong are Chinese, part of a huge spread of Sinitic populations southwards after the Qin and Han conquests 2,000 years ago. Nothing is ever static!”

Tsochen Man’ & Co.
In 1971, an amateur fossil collector found rhino fossils alongside human cranial bones and teeth along the Tsailiao River in Tsochen, Tainan — “Tsochen Man,” determined to be between 20,000 and 30,000 years old — Homo sapiens sapiens, or anatomically modern humans — considered proof that humans early on existed in Taiwan.

Pahsientung Cave has been excavated five times by NTU archaeologists since 1968, and is said to represent a similar period as Tsochen Man – the Changpin culture. Named after the east coast township where the caves are located, it is the oldest Paleolithic site found so far in Taiwan. The bone needles, chisels, harpoons and other bone tools found at the site show the earliest occupants of Taiwan lived in small groups in caves along the seashore, in rock shelters and lowland protected by wind, exploiting the environment through hunting and gathering. They made no pottery, only simple choppers and pebble tools.

Similar sites have been found all over Taiwan, from Oluanpi and Lungkeng, southern Kenting National Park to Hsiaoma Cave near Taitung. “Shellmounds,” or prehistoric garbage heaps, located in farmland on northern outlying Kinmen island, for instance, are believed to be 6,000 years old — evidence of age-old, intensive fishing practices.

NTU archaeologist Sung Wen-hsun posits the Changping — relative newcomers — came to Taiwan from China, based on strong similarities in stone tool designs used by Paleolithic cultures in southern China, notably, Fukien and Kwangtung,

The early Tapenkeng culture in Taiwan (6,000 to 5,000 BP before present), characterized by the advent of agriculture, overlapped the late Changpin culture (40,000 to 5,000 BP). A Tapenkeng site in Kenting recently provided the first evidence of prehistoric rice farming – shen variety of rice, but other traits include cord-marked pottery (hemp impressions), stone axes, adzes, arrowheads and net-sinkers.

It is believed that 4,000 years ago, ancestors of the current Taiwanese aboriginals settled in Taiwan.

This year, a team of archaeologists led by Dr. Tsang Cheng-hwa – a former director of the National Museum of Prehistory now at Academia Sinica — went to Chimei island and the Pescadores (Penghu) to excavate and analyze a stone tool workshop dating 4,000 BP. Basalt stone, which formed the volcanic islands, was used in ancient times to make stone tools. The Taiwanese went to Penghu and traded with the island for these materials, according to Tsang’s recent findings.

This discovery supports the hypothesis that Taiwan was the starting point for migration to the Philippines, Indonesia and other Pacific islands such as the Batanes, where similar excavations are currently under way. According to Tsang, the reason for settlement of the Batanes involved the movement of slate and nephrite from Taiwan, via Ludao and Lanyu islands.

Although there’s no direct evidence of sailing since early boats were likely made of wood or bamboo materials unlikely to survive the archaeological record, a boat-shaped jade found at the Shihsanhang site in northern Taipei county resembles single outrigger canoes of the South Pacific. And documents from the Song (1127-1279 AD) and Yuan dynasties mention prehistoric Taiwanese sailed bamboo rafts to attack Penghu.

The modern site of the Shihsanhang archaeological discovery. Photo credit: TdG
The Shihsanhang site, discovered during construction for a waste treatment site in 1989, revealed that roughly 2,000 years ago in Taiwan’s Iron Age, frequent trade with other cultures existed on the north coast and in the Taipei basin — then saltwater “Lake Taipei” — in the form of china, bronze coins, ornaments of gold and silver, bronze and glass. About a tenth of the Shihsanhang site was excavated and then nine-tenths destroyed. Today, the Shihsanhang museum is located next to the completed sewage treatment plant.


As recently as 2002, underwater archaeologists discovered remnants of four to five man-made walls running along the ocean floor off Penghu, 28m below murky waters of the archipelago’s Hsichi and Tungchi islets, estimated at between 6,000 and 12,000 years old.

Six years before in the same area, evidence of a sunken city was found when amateur divers discovered what may be city walls in the shape of a cross on the ocean floor. Further examination suggested the ruins were made between seven and ten thousand years ago; Japanese researchers estimated between 10,000 and 80,000.

Steve Shieh, head of planning for the Taiwan Underwater Archaeology Institute, said megalithic structures are also located off-shore near Pingtung County, similar to circles used in sacrificial rites off the coast of Japan’s southernmost Yonaguni island. The association plans to explore that location, as well as an apparent man-made path off the coast of Taitung.

Archaeologists are drawing comparisons between these ancient sites and the underwater structures found near Yonaguni island in 1985, east of Taiwan — what is said to be the oldest building in the world. Photographs show “a massive pyramid structure” 75 feet under the sea,” a “rectangular stone ziggurat twice as old as the great pyramids of Egypt.”

These underwater finds are part of a growing body of evidence suggesting the existence of civilizations in the region older than anything previously imagined. Based on this evidence, entire cities ended up underwater after sea levels rose toward the end of the last Ice Age 10,000 years ago.

Beinan, once a village of hundreds, was discovered when construction for a train station began, near this location. Photo credit: TdG

Taitung County, eastern Taiwan, 1945: Japanese scholars discovered hundreds of crescent-shaped, slate stone pillars (later determined to support houses) and conducted small-scale excavation. But it wasn’t until July 1980, when excavators at the site of the Beinan train station unearthed more than 1,500 slate stone coffins and over 20,000 stone and pottery artifacts. Today, the Beinan site is recognized as the largest and most intact Neolithic village of its kind in the Pacific Basin.

A team of salvage archaeologists from National Taiwan University (NTU) had only 400 days to excavate the site. Then, it took them a few decades to catalogue the rich remains. After locals protested to demand the return of their heritage, the relics were recently sent back in boxes and are now part of the Beinan Cultural Park and National Museum of Prehistory (NMP).

The modern Beinan archaeological site, where progress is slow in coming, with a dearth of archaeologists on the island. Photo credit: TdG

With an annual budget of NT$200 million, a massive museum was constructed 5 kilometers from the site, so it wouldn’t be disturbed. The government also bought 20 hectares out of the 80 hectares estimated as the settlement’s size; 20 hectares were subsequently destroyed. Beinan covers a tract of rolling hills and a host of cinnamon, durian and other paradisiacal trees — a beautiful but largely unexcavated park. Farmers can only grow in the area; construction is forbidden. Only a few hectares have actually been unearthed, another indicator that what we know so far about Taiwan’s archaeology just scratches the surface.

What was this Neolithic town at Beinan, and what happened to it? Amis aboriginals believe the Beinan site is a sacred – some say cursed — resting place of their ancestors. Local creation myths of the Paiwan and subtribes involve mountain origins, coming from snakes or borne from a jug, rather than overseas.

I took part in an archaeological dig there, an NMP program run primarily for high school students, There was a lone placard, “Indigenous Legends about Beinan,” in the Beinan Culture Park museum that discussed the Beinan peoples’ origin. With the translation assistance of my 18-year-old “pit buddy” there are competing accounts in local folklore of what happened to the Beinan people, known as the “Lala ersa.”

The Puyuma tribe at Nanwang say two brothers were in a fight; the younger was kidnapped and abused while imprisoned. The elder used a kite to save his brother. The grandmother, who knew magic, taught the tricks of earthquakes. The house of Lala burned during earthquake and fire, left in ruins.

The Amis at Tavarong say that once, a girl was kidnapped by the Beinan people to become a bride. Her brother rescued her through the help of the Lala ersa. But fighting broke out and the Lala ersa were all killed.

What does the Beinan site tell us about how people lived long ago in Taiwan? Using Carbon 14 dating, Beinan people lived 3,500 to 2,500 years ago. Men on average were 1.65m, women 155cm tall (the current average is 171.3 and 159.3, respectively), and they dressed in bark clothing (made using bark beaters) and animal skins. They farmed and fished, hunted wild boar, ate millet and rice, which they stored behind their house in a round, underground storage pit (“Chongma” hemp seeds were found), or raised storage structures.

The Beinan site has certain tools found only in Taiwan and Southeast Asia. Taiwan’s Paiwan and the Vietnamese both have a similar dagger with a bronze handle; in Beinan a hooked spear like the one used in the Philippines was used.

Beinan people constructed beautiful slate walkways and floors inside their houses. There were shamanic healers employing the use of herbs. Four thousand years ago, Taiwanese were drinking a millet wine that was likely similar to today’s “shaomijiu,” a liqueur to the modern palette, traditionally imbibed at harvest festivals and funerals. Beinan people also chewed betelnut, evidenced by stains on their teeth; perhaps time-worn traditions die hard.

As a rite of passage, Beinan people extracted the two canine teeth at age 14-16, a tradition still practiced by many Formosan tribes until the last century, much to the dismay of Japanese colonialists. The pain is described as better enabling the individual to face life’s challenges with courage.

One of many jade earrings found at Beinan, in the anthropomorphic design. Photo credit: Based on image courtesy of NMP

Beinan is described as a “jade civilization.” The same nephrite from Hualien has been found in other Neolithic sites as far as the Philippines and Indonesia.

Jade (nephrite), along with slate — usually transported from Hualien via nearby Beinan river — was used as a common, everyday ornament for bracelets, earrings and pendants. Jade items were often buried with the dead.

Anthropomorphic jade pendants found at Beinan depict two people side by side, with the form of a clouded leopard (now nearly extinct in Taiwan, but revered by tribes such as the Atayal), joining them together above the head. This is interpreted as a belief in a sacred connection between humans and the animal kingdom.

During funeral rites, wooden tools or spearheads were sometimes positioned over organs of the deceased. Small clay vessels were also buried with most adults but with less than half of children. The coffins are buried beneath houses, all with feet toward the north-northwest direction of nearby Tulan mountain. This practice is assumed to hold a sacred significance — ancestor or deity worship.

In southern Taiwan, people were entombed inside large clay pots underneath houses. In central and southern Taiwan, the dead are buried with face-covering pottery.

Trade throughout the region was already extensive at that time, as evidenced from the Beinan site and elsewhere in Taiwan. Archaeologists now believe Beinan people traveled to Hualien (now Shofong township) to trade with a neolithic jade workshop, the remains of which were recently discovered.

In recent years, “industrial science-based parks” — such as in Taichung and Tainan — are yielding the most exciting new discoveries. However, as one museum worker frankly told me, “We don’t have a plan to protect the sites.” Many museums and sites in Taiwan need additional funding for research, academic exchanges, conservation and exhibition.

Also, Taiwan is plagued by a lack of trained experts. There are only about 20 Taiwanese archaeologists – NTU’s anthropology department offers the island’s only professional training — and this shortage has severely retarded efforts to investigate Taiwan’s archaeology.

Another huge setback – Taiwan has been unable to gain U.N. membership, so it’s difficult for ancient sites such as Beinan to gain international recognition — and funding — as World Heritage sites.

Finally, time is a factor. Sites are being discovered faster than they can be salvaged. Two years ago, a typhoon exposed yet another site on the beach south of Taitung city. The NMP is attempting to investigate, but subsequent storms continue to batter the area.

10 thoughts on “Unpaving Paradise: Digging Up Taiwan's Ancient Heritage

  • July 23, 2012 at 2:42 am

    Great overview article!

    One remark:

    “… some moving on to other regions such as the Batanes in the Philippines, where linguistic similarities to this day make the local language easily intelligible to members of Taiwan’s Bunun, or Yami tribe of Orchid island… “

    This is not really true. The Austronesian languages of Taiwan are definitely related to the languages of the Northern Philippines, and it is easy to find lexical and grammatical similarities between them. However, they are not mutually intelligible, in the sense that speakers of both languages can have a functional conversation.

    It is true that certain words (typical examples include babu ‘pig’ and pitu ‘seven’) have the same, or a very similar, word form. Speakers often get excited when they discover that (“You see! We can understand each other; their pigs are also called babu!”)

  • October 3, 2011 at 10:53 pm

    Very interesting topics especially following dna sequences from around the world trying to better understand what caused alot of great civilizations to disperse.I think alot of evidence has been hidden under water and it is a matter of time before the world starts making a little more sense.I was wondering if they ever did DNA sequences on the Jomon of Japan?It does seem that major catastrophys have hidden history by far!If we can link the past we can understand why other civilizations would construct these megalithic structures all around the world as if they were leaving clues behind.I have a feeling that anarctica has history beneath it as well more studys need to go into the Yonaguni site as well as these underwater structures near Taiwan!

  • March 26, 2011 at 6:44 am

    Hi im from the Northern Marianas Islands and many people confuse us with Filipinos although just like taiwan, japan and china etc. We all look similar but speak different languages and dialects. My history says we migrated from Taiwan stopped by in the Phillipines for a few days and found the islands of Saipan,Guam & the Marianas. Im always interested where my people came from and our language. Under austronesian my language is linked under unclassified with the people from Palau. We speak Chamoru a name given to us from the spanish when conquered. Maybe you might know alot more about our people and language. My ancestors practiced the same methods of burial.

  • September 4, 2010 at 8:42 am

    Babelfish translation to simplified Chinese:
    Unpaving天堂: 发现Taiwan’ s古老遗产 2009年7月16日由Trista二Genova, MSt,牛津大学最初出版以在台湾新闻的删节的形式援引在megalithic.co.uk 第一根柱子由日本考古学家发现了。 照片信誉: TdG 大多数我们居住在我们的日常生活中一样取消的这地球尽可能从我们的文明根,并且台湾是没有不同的。 象多数现代化的国家,它工业化了它的从森林的地形入农田,然后从农田入倒出与混凝土结构的城市。 在一千个古老站点在台湾被发现了在过去世纪期间,当许多经常是出土的并且由仅少数考古学家至今挖掘了-。 少数知道台湾的历史在亚太地区也许把握关键到了解人的发展和迁移。 分散理论人的解决的证据在台湾-到目前为止-建于至少30,000年。 那里这些人起源于是不明的,并且语言学家、遗传学家和考古学家设法建立模型的事。 有人“传输”并且南岛语族语言和文化,入从东南亚的大洋洲,来自“台湾或附近的区域”根据“第一个人的作者”,安・ Gibbons; 并且东南中国。 在最后冰河时期期间(柏拉图援引9,600年前),海平面多达落150米和陆桥存在了在什么之间现在是中国和台湾。 迁移根据考古学的证据发生了,例如于两个地方存在,例如庞然大物、stegodons、犀牛和Przwalski的马瓦器和动物的相似的类型。 除Hsueshan山和雾森林和“存在于直到早期的20世纪的Alishan的上帝树以外”冰川,台湾是没有离开的海岛。 人从其他地方,一些继续前进向其他地区的停留,一些移居那里例如在兰花海岛菲律宾,语言相似性容易地至今使地方语言可理解对台湾的Bunun的成员,或者Yami部落的Batanes为他们小船制造的技能-已知的。 (照片) 脱氧核糖核酸证据展示台湾土著居民与马来西亚人和玻利尼西亚人-不东南中国有关。 这怎么能是? 澳大利亚国民考古学彼得Bellwood教授大学记载了南岛语族讲的人口怎么开始BC拓殖大洋洲(美拉尼西亚、密克罗西亚岛,波里尼西亚)大约1500年。 Bellwood结束了线粒体脱氧核糖核酸后裔传播与从中国的南岛语族祖先通过台湾入东南亚。 “明显地,所有这些早期的人民互相通婚了,包括有更加古老的本地人在台湾和东南亚,因此祖先基因踪影总是不是非常清楚的。 未曾有从未混杂”, Bellwood由电子邮件写的纯净的人口。 “台湾和福建之间的土地连接将存在直到及早全新世纪的期间,或许8000年前”,他继续了。 “这是在南岛语族之前,使用小船,移居到台湾大约6,000年前。 更加早期的人民是猎人和收集者-例如他们在Changbin洞把石工具留在东海岸”。 “南岛语族在台湾与人有关在南中国5,000年前”, Bellwood写道。 “但是他们现在不是,因为所有人民在福建和广东汉语,一部分的往南Sinitic人口巨大的传播在Qin和韩占领以后2,000年前。 什么都不是静态的!” `Tsochen Man & Co. 在1971年,爱好者化石收藏家发现了沿着人的头盖骨骨头和牙的犀牛化石沿Tsochen的Tsailiao河,台南- “Tsochen人”,确定是在20,000和30,000岁之间-现代智人或者解剖上现代人-被考虑的证明人于台湾在初期存在了。 Pahsientung洞由NTU考古学家挖掘了五次自1968年以来和说代表一个相似的期间当Tsochen人- Changpin文化。 到目前为止以洞找出的东海岸小镇命名,它是在台湾找到的最旧的旧石器时代的站点。 骨头针、凿子、鱼叉和其他骨头工具被找到在站点显示台湾的最早期的居住者在洞的小小组居住沿海滨,在风的和低地保护的岩石风雨棚,利用环境通过狩猎和汇聚。 他们没有做仅瓦器、简单的砍刀和小卵石工具。 相似的站点在台湾被找到,从Oluanpi和Lungkeng, Hsiaoma洞的南部的Kenting国家公园在台东附近。 “Shellmounds”,或史前垃圾堆,位于农田北边远Kinmen海岛,例如,认为是6,000岁-古老,密集的渔的证据实践。 NTU考古学家唱歌的Wen-hsun假定昌平-相对新来者-来了到台湾自中国,根据在旧石器时代的文化使用的石工具设计的强的相似性在南中国,显著地, Fukien和Kwangtung, 早期的Tapenkeng文化在台湾(6,000到5,000 BP在礼物之前),描绘为农业出现,重叠了晚Changpin文化(40,000到5,000 BP)。 Kenting的一个Tapenkeng站点最近提供了种田史前米的第一的证据-米沈品种,但是其他特征包括绳子被标记的瓦器(大麻印象),石轴、锛子、箭头和网坠子。 被相信4,000年前,在台湾安定的当前台湾土著居民的祖先。 早贸易今年, Tsang城hwa -现在史前史国家博物馆的一位前主任博士带领的考古学家队在Academia Sinica -去Chimei海岛和Pescadores (Penghu)挖掘和分析约会4,000 BP的石头工具车间。 玄武岩石头,形成火山岛,用于古老时期做石工具。 台湾人去Penghu并且换了与海岛为这些材料,根据Tsang的最近研究结果。 这个发现支持假说台湾是迁移的起点到菲律宾、印度尼西亚和其他太平洋海岛例如Batanes,相似的挖掘当前进行中。 根据Tsang, Batanes的解决的原因通过Ludao和Lanyu海岛介入了板岩的从台湾的运动和软玉。 虽然没有航行的直接证据从早期的小船可能由木制成或不太可能竹的材料生存考古学纪录,一块小船形状的玉被找到在Shihsanhang站点在北台北县类似南太平洋的唯一舷外浮舟。 并且从歌曲(1127-1279公元)和元朝的文件提及史前台湾航行的竹木筏攻击Penghu。 Shihsanhang考古学发现的现代站点。 照片信誉: TdG Shihsanhang站点,在1989年被发现在一个废料治理站点的建筑时,显露大致2,000年前在台湾的铁器时代,与其他文化的频繁贸易存在了在北海岸和于台北盆地-然后盐水“湖台北” -以瓷、古铜色金子和银的硬币、装饰品,古铜和玻璃的形式。 关于Shihsanhang的十分之一站点被挖掘了九铜币然后毁坏了。 今天, Shihsanhang博物馆在完整污水处理厂旁边位于。 水下的证据一样最近象2002年,水下的考古学家发现了残余四到五人造墙壁运行沿海底的Penghu, 28m在群岛的Hsichi和Tungchi小岛的浊水之下,估计在6,000和12,000岁之间。 以前六年在同一个区域,找到一个凹下去的城市的证据,当非职业潜水者发现了什么可以是城市墙壁以在海底上的一个十字架的形式。 进一步考试建议废墟被做了在七和一万之间几年前; 日本研究员估计在10,000和80,000之间。 史蒂夫Shieh,头计划对台湾水下的考古学学院,说巨石结构是也被找出的近海近的屏东县,相似与用于牺牲礼拜式的圈子在离日本的最南端的Yonaguni海岛的附近海岸。 协会计划探索那个地点,并且一个明显的人造道路在离台东的附近海岸。 在1985年考古学家是在这些古老站点和在Yonaguni海岛附近被找到的水下的结构之间的图画比较,在台湾东边-什么在世界上被认为最旧的大厦。 照片两次显示“一个巨型的金字塔结构” 75英尺在海之下”, a “长方形石ziggurat老象埃及的伟大的金字塔”。 这些水下的发现比以前想象的任何东西是建议证据一个生长的身体的一部分文明的存在这个区域旧。 在海水平上升了往最后冰河时期的结尾10,000年前之后,凭这证据,整个城市结果在水面下。 Beinan,一次村庄上百,在这个地点附近被发现了,当火车站的建筑开始了。 照片信誉: TdG BEINAN站点台东县,东台湾1945年: 日本学者发现了数百月牙形,板岩石柱子(以后被确定支持房子)和被举办的小规模挖掘。 但是它不是直到1980年7月,当在Beinan火车站的站点的挖掘机发掘了超过1,500个板岩石棺材和20,
    000石头和瓦器人工制品。 今天, Beinan站点被认可作为它在太平洋盆地的最大和最原封的新石器时代的村庄。 抢救a队

  • August 15, 2010 at 8:39 pm

    Taipei Man — there are still reports from time to time of Cloud Leopards in the wild in Taiwan.
    Thanks, all, for the positive response to this article — apparently there’s a great need for more research on this topic, and too few people doing it. One of our contributors in near future has promised to cover the half-excavated and abandoned sites in Taitung, eastern Taiwan, that were left open to the elements after the budget ran out… scandalous to anyone who cares about Taiwan history, heritage and archaeology.

  • January 20, 2010 at 11:05 am

    This is a brilliant article!!! Original and extremely important research. Kudos.

  • January 5, 2010 at 11:45 am

    The clouded leopard has been extinct for decades in Taiwan.

  • October 3, 2009 at 6:49 pm

    Hi my name is kieran and i come from new zealand im a Maori we are the people of tthis land. they say we come from taiwan and that is something i kan belive in id like to maybe go over to taiwan to feel the feeling of my ancestors. would be nice if we come from the saame place we kan work together and unlock alot

    • October 11, 2009 at 11:50 pm

      yes come on over! the Taiwan peacefest is nov. 6-8 and we (the festival organizers and I) are trying to get Maori representation there, but there’s only one in Taiwan!

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